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Numeric algorithms    

Developed by and for: Cesarano Technologies

Mersenne prime search Algorithm


Digital Tx/Rx Intelligent Security PCB's    
  Developed by and for: Cesarano Technologies  
  RX Circuit

TX Circuit

Highly Non-Linear Analog Hashing Functions    

Developed by and for: Cesarano Technologies

One-Way Encryption    

Text Fog: One-way Encryption Software (Use for Testing Anti-Encryption Methods, or Just to Have fun with your own messages...all original Characters are Always preserved)

Delimited Text

Non-Delimited Text

Monolithic Millimeter-Wave Integrated Circuit (MMIC)
Design & Development
  50-60 GHz Broadband frequency tripler
Developed for: California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
SIZE: 2000 X 2000 X 100 um
CAPACITORS: 330 pF / mm^2
RESISTORS: 30 Ohms / sq.
DIODES: two 1 x 3 um Schottky
INPUT: 16.6 - 20 GHz at 17-20 dBm
Output: 50 - 60 GHz

120-144 GHz Broadband frequency tripler
Developed for: California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
SIZE: 2000 X 730 X 100 um
CAPACITORS: 330 pF / mm^2
RESISTORS: 30 Ohms / sq.
DIODES: two 1 x 3 um Schottky
INPUT: 40 - 48 GHz at 17-20 dBm
Output: 120 - 144 GHz


  91-124 GHz Broadband frequency mixer
Developed for: California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
SIZE: 2000 X 730 X 100 um
CAPACITORS: 330 pF / mm^2
RESISTORS: 30 Ohms / sq.
DIODES: four 1 x 3 um Schottky
RF INPUT: 91 - 124 GHz
LO Input: 90.8 - 124.2 GHz
IF Output: +/- 20 GHz...200 GHz
33-50 GHz 3-stage Low-Noise Amplifier (LNA)
Developed for:The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)
SIZE: 2000 X 730 X 100 um
CAPACITORS: 330 pF / mm^2
RESISTORS: 30 Ohms / sq.
TRANSISTORS: three 100 x 80 um MHEMT
GAIN: ~25 dB across Q-Band

Prime and Random Number Generation  

Generate Unlimited Prime Numbers
(Software Download)

Developed by and for: CesaranoTechnologies, Inc.

*Windows 8.1 may throw an execption when you attempt to execute the software. This is not because there is anything malicious about the code, but only because newer versions of Windows have higher security settings by default. If this happens, click "More Info" and then "Run Anyway.

Also included is the source code of the software (Primes.Zip, below) so that anyone can use it to seed their own Functions with Cesarano Technologies, Inc. prime number generation function calls, which refer to this code. This code is being used in conjunction with the Analog Non-Linear Hashing Functions to randomly seed them, creating aperiodic highly nonlinear function calls. (VB.NET Source Code)

Observe atmospheric noise
(Software Download)

Developed by and for: CesaranoTechnologies, Inc.

RF Module Design & Development  

Q-Band (40 - 50 GHz) Cryogenically Cooled Low-Noise Amplifier (LNA)
Developed for: The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)
Frequency Range - 40 to 50 GHz
Gain: 24 +/- 1 dB
Noise Figure: < 6 dB
Output P1dB: > -5 dBm

Q-Band Drawings
Q-Band Design & Machine Drawings
Q-Band Open
Assembled Module
Q-Band Magnified
RF Active & Passive Elements
Q-Band Constructed
Q-Band Operational
Q-Band LNA log|s21|
Q-Band s11
Q-Band LNA log|s11|
PCB Schematic
Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Schematic
Q-Band PCB
PCB Layout
  Ka-Band (26.5 - 40 GHz) Frequency Mixer/Down-Converter
Developed for: The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)
RF Frequency Range: 26 to 40 GHz
LO Frequency Range: 36 to 48 GHz
IF Frequency Range: 8 to 18 GHz
RF to IF Gain: 14 +/- 1.5 dB
Gain variation: < 1 dB in any 2 GHz
Noise figure: < 7 dB
Input P1 dB: > -18 dBm
LOref to IF leakage: -60 dBm

Ka-Band Constructed
Ka-Band Down-Converter Constructed
Ka-Band Chassis
Ka-Band Design and Machine Drawings
Ka testing 1
Ka-Downconverter Lab Testing
Ka-Band Bench Test
Ka-Downconverter Lab Testing (cont.)
Ka-Band Schematic
Ka-Band Downconverter Schematic
Ka-Band Detail
Ka-Band RF Detail
Ka-Band detail 2
Ka-Band RF Signal Flow
33MIX1 Lc
Ka-Band Downconverter Central Mixer Lc (dB)
Ka-Band CL
Ka-Band Downconverter Assembled Module Lc (dB)
Digital Signal Processing and Correlation

Developed for: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center

Digital Signal Correlator

Wearable Bodily Sensor Technology

Developed for: Cesarano Technologies, INC.

2-D/3-D Sensing and Mapping Anatomical Analysis

This project was developed to perform full 3-dimensional mapping of the human anatomy using a Non-Invasive, high resolution body imaging sensor network. The design utilizes a 2-D, 2 layer flexible printed circuit board fed through a wishbone bottleneck and employs adaptive software to use a 2-stage calibration algorithm to first determine the specifics of the patient's contours, and then calculate pressure differentials. Solutions include determination of the progress of healing, comparison of an the status of an injured limb with an uninjured limb, non-invasive and/or inexpensive rapid extremature modeling, etc.

Full PCB Model

Stages 1-5: PCB Model

Stages 1-2: PCB Model

Cellular Diagram


Systems Integration
  Warner Robins Air Force Base -- JSTARS Security System
Developed for: United States Air Force (USAF)
This project comprised a multimillion dollar system integration contract awarded to L-3 Communications GSI to protect the Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS) aircraft assets in Warner Robins, GA. Patrick Cesarano of Cesarano Technologies, Inc. served as lead engineer on the project, which incorporated video motion detection, short and long range RADAR, entry control, motion, pressure, fence and BMS sensors, over 70 video assessment and 30 data feeds, RS-232/422 control protocol nodes, 3-DES encryption and full integration into a proprietary fiber-backbone XML network.

Cesarano Technologies, Inc.
conceived and introduced a novel,innovative approach to base security. By treating each physical security point as a digital state (alarmed or secure, or 0/1), we were able to treat the entire base as a scalable VLSI/ULSI integrated circuit, allowing us to introduce modern circuit design technologies incorporating logic and discrete algorithms to optimize security-related communications across the base, the effect of which was increased reliability, stability and control. This strategy also lent itself to footprinting primary signal paths (through buildings, switches, etc.) illuminating areas in need of enhanced resource allocation and providing a transparent signal "skeleton" for diagnosing system vulnerabilities/weaknesses. The design required over a dozen sub-contractors and took five years to fully design and assemble--the aim of this effort was to incorporate all base security events into a prioritized, accessible queue tagged by video, still shots, time-stamped records and an operator's documentation. A secondary feed was also provided for a remote (redundant) system operator. Mr. Cesarano also served as the principal architect of the field programmable gate array sensor interface server (FPGA-SIS) responsible for all sensor monitoring and XML annunciation, and further designed the line-supervision circuits used to detect tamper and spoof on all copper and fiber lines.

Command-Control Console
Low-Light PTZ Imager and ARSS RADAR
Entry Control and Relay-Triggered Sensors
Electronics Suite
Integration Electronics Rack
PSRS Zones
Perimeter Surveillence RADAR
PL Zones
PL3, PL2, and PL1 Security Zones

Copper-Fiber Interconnect: Generic Single Node
Developed for: White Sands Missile Range (US Army-WSMR) and the University of New Mexico
This project aims to detect transceivers used in the coordination of IED attacks by looking for signal by-products created during the normal operation of constituent non-linear (semiconductor) components operating in an otherwise linear medium (rocks, trees, etc.). It does so by scanning all standard communications frequencies (0-11 GHz) with a proprietary waveform-- at the IED's tuned antenna frequency this signal couples into the device generating its unique signature, which is subsequently identified at a separate receiver. This not only signifies its presence but provides crucial information as to the device's operating frequency, which can then be saturated (jammed), cutting off all external signaling—at this point the supporting forces can simply switch to neighboring communication channels while the device is disarmed.

This process has been demonstrated to work even when the devices are powered off, and for ANY wireless transceiver device including cell phones, laptops with WiFi, walkie-talkies, and even receive-only devices such as GPS units and digital radios. The second illustration (below) shows expansion markets for this technology--areas where smart devices with cameras or other recording capability may be prohibited such as airports, power plants, court houses, etc.

Vortex IED Detection Technology
Vortex Extension
Transceiver Detection Expansion Market
  USMC and General Dynamics -- "Smart" Light Armored Vehicle (LAV) Prototype
Developed for: The United States Marine Corps (USMC)
This project aims to harness recent technological advances to overcome multiple practical shortcomings in current LAV systems design and further revolutionize the way current subsystems are utilized. It does so by adapting the vehicle and its equipment to a 100% Ethernet Gigabit video/data/control backbone. This solution is especially elegant as future scalability is essentially unlimited. The primary objective is to increase the situational awareness for the support troops stationed in the vehicle's rear, allowing them to switch between multiple digitized video feeds (i.e. the vehicle's primary weapon, secondary weapon, low-light or thermal imaging systems, situational awareness camera, GPS locator or any other video feed/GUI incorporated in or on the vehicle). It gives this same access to the LAV driver and navigator, each of whom currently has an independent hardware reticle available to them alone. While the prototype currently supports only (passive) video, the Ethernet protocol would allow for future development into active passenger or remote operator subsystem observation and/or control, possibly within a dedicated to-be-specified software layer.

Smart LAV
"Smart" LAV Prototyping and Development
LAV Banner
LAV System Integration
Software Modeling and Development
  Gaussian Mean Phase Shift Keying Modulator (GMPSK) with Pseudorandom Noise (PN) Ranging "Soft Models"
Developed for: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
This project comprised a 6-month effort to develop MATLAB "soft models" for the existing communications hardware architecture at the Goddard Space Flight Center, verify they correlate with actual measured data, and then suggest and test modifications and improvements. The simulation models allow for extensive testing and development prior to (or in many cases in place of) financially exorbitant field testing (testing on payloads in space). These models in particular simulate a proposed GMPSK modulated data signal combined with a PN ranging tone designed to address emerging requirements for simultaneous high data rate with tracking (ranging) capability. GMPSK is just a variant of frequency shift keying (FSK) like FM and is the main data carrier. PN code is a close relative of the code division multiple access (CDMA) scheme used by cellular phones—it is as close to noise as is mathematically possible while still retaining information (in this case, the smaller ranging tone) and is decoded by a unique bit vector also nearly orthogonal to all other neighboring signals.

GMSK PN Simulation
GMSK Modulator with PN Ranging Tone (included 1 MHz sub-carrier)
GMSK PN 5-channel
GMSK Modulator with PN Ranging Tone (no sub-carrier, 4 adjacent channels)
GMSK PSD 4-channel
Power Spectral Density of GMSK-PN with 4 adjacent channels (excellent seperation)
  RF Component Modeling in ADS, Sonnet, MATLAB and HFSS
Developed for: Virginia Diodes, Inc., JPL, Caltech, NRAO, Oleson Microwave, Raytheon, NASA-Goddard, others
HFSS and Son-nett are finite-element electromagnetic simulators solving the discretized Maxwell equations in 3 and 2.5-D structures, respectively. ADS is a harmonic balance simulator allowing small-signal modeling of active components and circuits. Together, they form the backbone of the RF component industry--our knowledge and experience with these powerful tools cannot be understated.

mHEMT s-s model
Raytheon mHEMT Small-Signal Transistor Model
mHEMT testing
mHEMT Model Tested (excellent agreement)

40-50 GHz band pass filter (45bpf1)
45bpf1 Sonnet Filter
Sonnet 45BPF1 Filter Model
45bpf1 ADS Filter
ADS 45BPF1 Filter Model
Filter Performance obs. vs simulated
Simulated vs Tested (excellent agreement): 45BPF1 log|sij|

Simulators at work:
The slides below illustrate the tremendous utility of various simulators working alone and in conjunction with each other. In the first set, Sonnet uncovered unwanted electromagnetic (B-field) coupling in a 20 mil (2/100 in.) cavity resulting in shorter trace electrical lengths. The new effective lengths result in a tuned circuit of higher frequency (10 dB less magnitude at the low end (40 GHz) of the design frequency). This problem was fixed by redesigning the chassis with an extra 11 mils (11/1000 in.) of z-clearance--small, but enough to fix the problem:

Sonnet Cavity Waves
Sonnet simulation reveals unwanted B-field coupling resulting in shorter electrical lengths (next slide)
40 GHz Collapse
Unwanted B-field coupling revealed by Sonnet seen experimentally at 40 GHz

Chassis re-engineered
40 GHz reclaimed
Re-designed chassis using Sonnet optimization--40 GHz reclaimed

In this next set, ADS predicted superior insertion loss in a frequency multiplier by tripling each of the anti-parallel diodes. In practice, the distances between them could be no closer than 42 mils (42/1000 in.) by Raytheon foundry standards--Sonnet predicted horrible phase mismatch with these spacings and the circuit ceases to be operational. A MATLAB simulation of the 42 mil spacings (below) confirmed this conclusion. A compromise was reached wherein Raytheon agreed to space the anodes by only 10 mils (1/100 in.) in a Cesarano Technologies, Inc. hybrid "three fingered" Schottky diode with a single cathode. The functionality of the anode spacings in the new design was confirmed by Sonnet and MATLAB (below), and the performance turned out to be exceptional. Following their fabrication and testing, the new devices were so successful they becomes Caltech's standard for frequency multiplication, mixing, and a variety of other applications—they (and their new architecture) have replaced the old design in literally thousands of circuits (below).

Triple-Diode Switch
ADS shows superior frequency multiplication insertion loss with 6 anti-parallel diodes
MATLAB Delta Model
MATLAB Model--Verification of Sonnet Results

MATLAB Desired Signal
MATLAB: Ideal Signal (time domain)

MATLAB Large Delta
MATLAB: Conventional Technology, Large D (42 mils, Unusable)

MATLAB Small Delta
MATLAB: Cesarano Technologies Proprietary Small D (11 mils, Excellent Performance),

Triple-anode Layout
Finished Product: 3-Fingered (Triple Anode) Schottky Layout (small D)
Triple-anode Chips
New MMIC Development WITH CALTECH RF LAB USING 3-Fingered Architecture
  Link Budget Analysis
Developed for: United States Customs and Border Protection (USCBP), United States Air Force (USAF)
Link budget and coverage analysis has seen tremendous advances in the accuracy and reliability of calculations with the incorporation of United States Geological Survey (USGS NED 1/3 Arc Second) data via the "Seamless Data Warehouse". Cesarano Technologies, Inc. was privileged to work with L-3 Communications, GSI on a proposal evaluating operating frequencies for US Customs and Border Protection at southern border stations at 2, 7, and 15 GHz. We also contributed simulations and analysis to a proposal for the USAF which suggested using a redundant ring architecture between launch facilities (LFs) and their coordinating master facility (MAF) for North American Minuteman ICBM silos and evaluating the feasibility of these RF links over satellite with the conclusion that 2/3 of the United States could be sufficiently serviced with terrestrial links alone.

Pathloss Link Budget
Link Budget Analysis using Pathloss 4.0
Rayleigh Fading
Visualization of Rayleigh Fading
Modeling over NED 1/3 ArcSecond USGS Data
Long Haul Link
Long Haul (~15 km) Calculations
  Stock Predator: Real-Time Trading Analysis Software
Developed for: Private Party Customer
Cesarano Technologies, Inc. has undertaken a number of software development projects in addition to its mainly hardware-oriented focus. This software suite works in real time with incoming stock quote data to perform a variety of traditional mathematical analysis strategies on any publicly traded company of interest. It utilizes a pricing feed available only to licensed Wall St. traders, and was developed with only a house simulation of this feed. It was painstakingly coded to work as fast as possible--it is bare-bones other than its unique purpose, and further implements a number of code-intensive sub-routines which are were verified to work faster than equivalent look-up table strategies. It was developed for a private party to give them a technological edge over fellow traders using otherwise comparable software.

Stock Predator 1
Stock Predator: Dashboard
Stock Predator 2
Stock Predator: Channel Breakout Analysis
Stock Predator 3
Stock Predator: Moving Average Analysis
Stock Predator 4
Stock Predator: Dual Moving Average Analysis
  Cesarano Technologies, Inc. Customized Professional Suites
Developed for: Private Party Customer(s)
Beginning in 2009, Cesarano Technologies, Inc. began executing a series of contracts for an unexpected variety of professional clients--in particular, legal and medical practices looking to build highly secure private networks to insulate their digital liabilities protected by privilege. The scope of many of these projects has grown to include a selection of customarily designed and personalized digital products (such as the electronic intake, evaluation and report generation software shown below). We are now routinely offering biometric and security video integration, business specific Android mobile apps, private network security GUI's, VPN tunnels for remote access, standard and mobile website development and nearly any other product our clients can envision.

Medical Suite 1
Medical Suite Software: Electronic Intake, Evaluation and Report Generation
Medical Suite 2
Symptom Evaluation
Medical Suite 3
Current Substance Abuse Evaluation
Medical Suite 4
Past Psychiatric History
Medical Suite 5
Medication History